Sintering describes the consolidation of individual (nano) particles to form a dense microstructure through the application of heat, pressure, electric fields, etc.  Electric field-assisted sintering (EFAS) is a type of sintering technique with a large number of studies reported in the literature and wide application. In fact, sintering studies of various oxide materials at low temperatures has been done however not much have been devoted on consolidation of iron oxide . In both cases, the atomic scale consolidation mechanisms under heating rates and electrical fields during EFAS remain mostly unclear .
The identification of a preferred phase of Fe₃O₄ for sintering during in situ study. The researchers also discovered evidence for reduction-oxidation reaction mechanisms during sintering.