Image courtesy of Nanoscale

Abstract

In situ wet cells for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allow studying structures and processes in a liquid environment with high temporal and spatial resolutions, and have been attracting increasing research interests in many fields. In this review, we highlight the structural and functional developments of the wet cells for TEM and STEM. One of the key features of the wet cells is the sealing technique used to isolate the liquid sample from the TEM/STEM vacuum environments, thus the existing in situ wet cells are grouped by different sealing methods. In this study, the advantages and shortcomings of each type of in situ wet cells are discussed, the functional developments of different wet cells are presented, and the future trends of the wet cell technology are addressed. It is suggested that in the future the in situ wet cell TEM/STEM technology will have an increasing impact on frontier nanoscale research.

Impact Statement

A discussion on the functional developments of different in situ wet cells as well as future trends in wet cell technology. The researchers concluded that in the future, in situ wet cell TEM/SEM technology will have an increasing impact on nanoscale research.