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A controlled electron–water radiolysis process is used to generate predictable concentrations of radical and ionic species in graphene liquid cells, allowing the concept of a nanoscale chemical reactor. A differential scanning technique is used to generate the desired time- and space-varying electron dose rate. Precise control of the local concentration of H2, the dominant radiolysis species, is demonstrated experimentally at the nanometer scale.

Impact Statement

Graphene liquid cells enable small volumes of liquid to be encapsulated for in situ liquid imaging. This paper examines the effect of electron dose on the concentration of radiolysis products and provides some comparison to silicon nitride based dedicated in situ liquid TEM holders (Poseidon).
Keywords: Beam Effects; Electron Dose