Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed.
Time-lapse imaging of gold nanoparticles in solution and nanoparticle tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells imaged with LC-STEM.
Keywords: Cells; Cellular Labeling; Nanoparticles; Dynamics